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Quantum Computers:
27 April 2008:
Jan Benhelm, Gerhard Kirchmair, Christian F. Roos & Rainer Blatt,
"Towards fault-tolerant quantum computing with trapped ions", Nature Physics 4, 463 - 466 (2008)
We report on a Mølmer–Sørensen-type gate operation entangling ions with a fidelity of 99.3(1)%  (pdf

06 August 2009 Step Toward Quantum Computers:
Jonathan P. Home, David Hanneke, John D. Jost, Jason M. Amini, Dietrich Leibfried, and David J. Wineland,
"Complete Methods Set for Scalable Ion Trap Quantum Information Processing", Science 4 September 2009 325: 1227-1230 (pdf)

September 3rd, 2009
Bristol University  demonstrates world's-first optical quantum computer
First-ever calculation  performed on optical quantum computer chip

The University of Bristol has created the world's first optical quantum computer capable of
performing mathematical calculations. The computer used single particles of light (photons)
passing through a silicon chip to work out the prime factors of the number 15 (three and five).
The chip has four photons that carry the input for the calculations (in binary a four-digit input
allows for all numbers between 0 and 15). The input is analysed using a quantum program,
which calculates the prime facto

Quantum Codes:

25 October 2008:
R. Alicki, M. Fannes, M. Horodecki
"On thermalization in Kitaev 2D model" (pdf)
arXiv:0810.4584v1 [quant-ph]
It is shown that the largest relaxation time for the 2D Kitaev toric code is bounded by exp(D/kT)
uniformly in the system size, where D is the energy gap above the four-fold degenerate groundstate.
In particular this model cannot serve as a memory since it is unstable against thermalization.

 2 November 2008:
R. Alicki, M. Horodecki, P. Horodecki & R. Horodecki,
"On thermal stability of topological qubit in Kitaev 4D model" (pdf)
arXiv:0811.0033v1 [quant-ph]
The 4D Kitaev's toric code is shown to have a relaxation time exponentially groving with the system size.
Its use for quantum memory is discussed.

Quantum Algorithms:
Quantum Algorithm Zoo: Stephen P. Jordan' Caltech homepage  

Matthew Hayward's quantum algorithms page at Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy 

Quantum Cryptography Networks: 

September 2002 Geneva University spin-off makes quantum leap in secure communications   

id Quantique is a spin-off of the University of Geneva, Switzerland. It was created in October 2001 by four researchers of the Group of Applied Physics, Grégoire Ribordy, Olivier Guinnard, Nicolas Gisin and Hugo Zbinden. id Quantique has the commitment to become a leader in novel secure communication systems based on quantum photonics. It has developed the first commercial quantum cryptography system and quantum random number generator (QRNG).
April 25, 2005: id Quantique unveiled at Infosecurity Europe in London its new quantum cryptography link encryptor. This product, called Vectis, combines a quantum cryptography system to perform secure key distribution and an encryption engine encrypting Ethernet traffic.

February 2003:  Business Wire MagiQ Technologies Unveils First Commercial Quantum Cryptography System at DEMO 2003.

June 2004:  First quantum cryptography network unveiled. (see also Wikipedia: Quantum Cryptography)

April 2007  Chinese develop state-of-the-art quantum cryptography network

October 2007  Quantum Elections
World premiere for Geneva. The canton employed quantum cryptography to protect the dedicated line used for counting the ballots, for the swiss national elections on October 21, 2007. This first real-world application of this technology is the initial phase of a wide-ranging plan involving several partners from the Lake Geneva region, including University of Geneva, start-up company id Quantique and the NCCR QP. Eventually, this operation will lead to the creation of a pilot quantum communications network in Geneva similar to the nascent Internet network in the United States back in the 1970s.

October 2008: UK crypto boffins turbo-charge quantum cryptography  

October 2008: First Network Using Quantum Cryptography Demonstrated 

November 18th, 2008: The first metropolitan quantum cryptography network will be available in Spain by 2010

March 2009:  SwissQuantum is a project aiming at the deployment of the world’s most advanced quantum communication network.
Mai 2009 World's First Quantum Cryptography Network Developed in China